Diabetes Care. Jul;32(7) doi: /dc Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Kitabchi AE(1), Umpierrez GE, Miles JM. Impact of a hyperglycemic crises protocol. hyperglycemic crises protocol based upon the American Diabetes Association (ADA) consensus statement. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as hyperosmotic hyperglycemic Typical lab characteristics of DKA and HHS · – ADA DKA HHS water deficit · – DKA rapid overview Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care ;
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Treatment of patients with mild and moderate DKA with subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogs every 1 or 2 h in non—intensive care unit ICU settings has been shown to be as safe and effective as the treatment with intravenous regular insulin in the ICU 60 Age-Adjusted DKA hospitalization rate per 1, persons with diabetes and in-hospital case-fatality rate, United States, — 4.
Kidney Int ; Pseudonormoglycemia in diabetic ketoacidosis with elevated triglycerides. Does bicarbonate therapy improve the management of severe diabetic ketoacidosis? Patients with DKA and HHS should be treated with continuous intravenous insulin until the hyperglycemic crisis is resolved.
Epub Mar Changing the process of diabetes care improves metabolic outcomes and reduces hospitalizations. Patients with DKA and vomiting may have relatively normal plasma bicarbonate levels and close to normal pH.
Occasionally, patients with HHS may present with focal neurological deficit and seizures 72 Arch Intern Med ; Relationship of blood acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate in diabetes. Am J Emerg Med ; Similar articles in PubMed. Furthermore drugs that have sulfhydryl groups can interact with the reagent in the nitroprusside reaction, giving a false positive result In DKA, reduced effective insulin concentrations and increased concentrations of counterregulatory hormones catecholamines, cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone lead to hyperglycemia and ketosis.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; Proinflammatory cytokines in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemic stress in healthy subjects.
Hyperglycemic Crises in Adult Patients With Diabetes – Semantic Scholar
Cerebral oedema crsies treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis: In patients with HHS, neurological symptoms include clouding of sensorium which can progress to mental obtundation and coma However, total body potassium deficit is usually present from urinary potassium losses due to osmotic diuresis and ketone excretion. Transition to subcutaneous insulin Patients with DKA and HHS should be treated with continuous intravenous insulin until the hyperglycemic crisis is resolved.
Clinical and metabolic characteristics of hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. A recent study 2 reported that the cost burden resulting from avoidable hospitalizations due to short-term uncontrolled diabetes including DKA is substantial 2.
Coagulation abnormalities in diabetic coma before and 24 hours after treatment.
Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes.
Hyperglycemia and ketone bodies production play central roles in developing this metabolic decompensation More recently, basal-bolus regimens with basal glargine and detemir and rapid-acting insulin analogs lispro, aspart, or glulisine have been proposed as a more physiologic insulin regimen in patients with type 1 diabetes. Efficacy of subcutaneous insulin lispro versus continuous intravenous regular insulin for the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Clinically, cerebral edema is characterized by deterioration in the level of consciousness, lethargy, decreased arousal, and headache.
Int J Clin Pract ; Similarly, cirses supervision and staff education in long-term facilities may prevent many of the admissions for HHS due to dehydration among elderly individuals who are unable to recognize or treat this evolving condition. The triad of DKA hyperglycemia, acidemia, and ketonemia and other conditions with which the individual components are associated.
Impact of a hyperglycemic crises protocol.
However, patients who received intravenous insulin showed a more rapid decline in blood glucose and ketone bodies in the first 2 hours of treatment. Hyperosmolar nature of diabetic coma.
Ann Intern Med ; However, until these studies are confirmed outside the research arena, patients with severe DKA, hypotension, anasarca, or associated severe critical illness should be managed with intravenous regular insulin in the ICU.
Hyperglycemia is a key diagnostic criterion of DKA; however, a wide range of plasma glucose can be present on admission. From Kitabchi and Wall DKA can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the severity of metabolic acidosis and the presence of altered mental status Endocr Pract ; Journal List Diabetes Care v.
Diabetic ketoacidosis and infection: Annu Rev Med ; Patients with low normal or low serum potassium concentration on admission have severe total-body potassium deficiency and require careful cardiac monitoring and more vigorous potassium replacement because treatment lowers potassium further and can provoke cardiac dysrhythmia.
The two most common precipitating factors in the development of DKA or HHS are inadequate insulin therapy whether omitted or insufficient insulin regimen or the presence of infection 39 Mannitol infusion and mechanical ventilation are used to combat cerebral edema.
Am J Med Sci ; Diabetes care ; 3: In other studies, education of primary care providers and school personnel in identifying the signs and symptoms of DKA has been shown to be effective in decreasing the incidence of DKA at the onset of diabetes First, hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis leads to excretion of large amounts of sodium and potassium ions that is accompanied by the excretion of ketoanions.
Correlation between the outcomes and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis: It is, however, accepted now that true or corrected serum sodium concentration aea patients experiencing hyperglycemic crisis should be calculated by adding 2. Br Med J ; 2: